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Sandbox homepage Lee Library: Citation Guide

Lee High School Library Webpage 2016-17



Getting started with Noodletools 

Citing a book

How do I cite a book?

Use the title page first, and then the copyright page (not the cover or jacket), to find:

  • Title and subtitle
  • Author
  • Illustrator, translator or other contributor
  • Publisher’s name and imprint
  • Place of publication
  • Latest copyright date
  • Series name (if applicable)
  • Edition (if applicable)

Citing a Database

Databases make citing sources as easy as possible:

  • Most library databases include a citation tool for articles & resources.

Using ABC CLIO Database Citations:

Citing a Website

How do I cite a Website or a webpage?

Common elements needed:

  • Title
  • Author
  • Editor of the page or site
  • Name of the Web site or Project
  • Publisher or sponsor
  • Date of the publication
  • Date of access (when you used the website)
  • URL

Citing an Image

Basic Citation Format for Images found on a website:

"Image Title." Image. Name of the Website. Date the image was posted. Web. Day Month Year you accessed the website.

Citing Audio Files

Purdue Online Writing Lab

How to cite audio files:

The following is excerpted from the Purdue Online Writing Lab (and linked above)

Sound Recordings

List sound recordings in such a way that they can easily be found by readers. Generally, citations begin with the artist name. They might also be listed by composers (comp.) or performers (perf.). Otherwise, list composer and performer information after the album title.

Use the appropriate abbreviation after the person’s name and a comma, when needed. Put individual song titles in quotation marks. Album names are italicized. Provide the name of the recording manufacturer followed by the publication date (or n.d., if date is unknown). List the appropriate medium at the end of the entry (e.g. CD, LP, Audiocassette). For MP3 recordings, see the “Digital Files” section below.

Note: If you know and desire to list the recording date, include this information before the manufacturer name. Use the abbreviation for “recorded” (Rec.) and list the recording date (dd mm year format) before the manufacturer name.

Foo Fighters. In Your Honor. RCA, 2005. CD.

Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind. Geffen, 1991. Audiocassette.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. The 9 Symphonies. Perf. NBC Symphony Orchestra. Cond. Arturo Toscanini. RCA, 2003. CD.

Spoken-Word Albums

Treat spoken-word albums the same as musical albums.

Hedberg, Mitch. Strategic Grill Locations. Comedy Central, 2003. CD.

Digital Files (PDFs, MP3s, JPEGs)

Determine the type of work to cite (e.g., article, image, sound recording) and cite appropriately. End the entry with the name of the digital format (e.g., PDF, JPEG file, Microsoft Word file, MP3). If the work does not follow traditional parameters for citation, give the author’s name, the name of the work, the date of creation, and the medium of publication. Use Digital file when the medium cannot be determined.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Moonlight Sonata. Crownstar, 2006. MP3.

Smith, George. “Pax Americana: Strife in a Time of Peace.” 2005.Microsoft Word file.


Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and National Writing Project. Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing. CWPA, NCTE, and NWP, 2011. PDF file.


Bentley, Phyllis. “Yorkshire and the Novelist.” The Kenyon Review 30.4 (1968): 509-22. JSTOR. PDF file.

In-Text Citations

Online Citation Resources

Purdue OWL QR Code
Purdue Online Writing Lab

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